# Non-parametric statistics

*This page is a part of PSPP Guide.*

PSPP also performs some non-parametric tests. Non parametric tests make very few assumptions about the distribution of the data.

Currently there are two tests available:

### Chi-Square test

The Chi-Square test produces a chi-square statistic for the differences between the expected and observed frequencies of the categories of a variable. Optionally, a range of values may appear after the variable list. If a range is given, then non integer values are truncated, and values outside the specified range are excluded from the analysis.

To do Chi-Square test go to *Analyze – Non-Parametric Statistics – Chi-Square*.

### Binominal

The binomial test compares the observed distribution of a dichotomous variable with that of a binomial distribution. The variable p specifies the test proportion of the binomial distribution. The default value of 0.5 is assumed if p is omitted.

If a single value appears after the variable list, then that value is used as the threshold to partition the observed values. Values less than or equal to the threshold value form the first category. Values greater than the threshold form the second category.

If two values appear after the variable list, then they will be used as the values which a variable must take to be in the respective category. Cases for which a variable takes a value equal to neither of the specified values, take no part in the test for that variable.

If no values appear, then the variable must assume dichotomous values. If more than two distinct, non-missing values for a variable under test are encountered then an error occurs.

If the test proportion is equal to 0.5, then a one tailed test is reported. For any other test proportion, a one tailed test is reported. For one tailed tests, if the test proportion is less than or equal to the observed proportion, then the significance of observing the observed proportion or more is reported. If the test proportion is more than the observed proportion, then the significance of observing the observed proportion or less is reported. That is to say, the test is always performed in the observed direction.

PSPP uses a very precise approximation to the gamma function to compute the binomial significance. Thus, exact results are reported even for very large sample sizes.

To do Chi-Square test go to *Analyze – Non-Parametric Statistics – Binominal*.

Result in PSPP output window:

*PSPP*

Ključne besede:

*PSPP*